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CentOS 7 中mysql 的安装详解

admin

11月 28, 2021

Mysql 下载地址:

wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.7/mysql-5.7.17-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz

下载成功后,将文件进行解压:

tar -zxvf mysql-5.7.17-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz

将文件移动到/usr/local/

mv mysql-5.7.17-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64 /usr/local/mysql

cd /usr/local/mysql/

创建数据库存放目录:

mkdir /usr/local/mysql/data

创建数据库日志存放目录:

mkdir /usr/local/mysql/logs

创建mysql用户组:

groupadd mysql

查看mysql用户组是否创建成功

tail /etc/group

创建mysql 用户,并指定所属用户组mysql 且限制登录,只允许运行数据库

 useradd -r -g mysql -s /sbin/nologin mysql

查看mysql 用户:

tail /etc/shadow

授权mysql用户和mysql用户组拥有/usr/local/mysql 目录的访问权限

chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql/

进入mysqlbin目录下,初始化数据库的基本信息:

cd  /usr/local/mysql/bin

./mysqld –initialize –user=mysql –basedir=/usr/local/mysql –datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data/

./mysql_ssl_rsa_setup –datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data/

进入mysql support-files目录下,将my-default.cnf复制到/etc下并重命名my.cnf

cd /usr/local/mysql/support-files/

cp my-default.cnf /etc/my.cnf

编辑my.cnf配置文件并保存:

# For advice on how to change settings please see
# http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/server-configuration-defaults.html
# *** DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE. It's a template which will be copied to the
# *** default location during install, and will be replaced if you
# *** upgrade to a newer version of MySQL.

[mysqld]

# Remove leading # and set to the amount of RAM for the most important data
# cache in MySQL. Start at 70% of total RAM for dedicated server, else 10%.
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 1G

# Remove leading # to turn on a very important data integrity option: logging
# changes to the binary log between backups.
log_bin

# These are commonly set, remove the # and set as required.
basedir =/usr/local/mysql
datadir =/usr/local/mysql/data
port = 3306
server_id = 22209
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock
binlog_format =statement
log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/error.log
pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysql.pid
user=mysql

skip-grant-tables


# Remove leading # to set options mainly useful for reporting servers.
# The server defaults are faster for transactions and fast SELECTs.
# Adjust sizes as needed, experiment to find the optimal values.
join_buffer_size = 128M
sort_buffer_size = 2M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M
log_bin_trust_function_creators=on

sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES
lower_case_table_names=1

再复制mysql.server 到/etc/init.d/mysql下
cp mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql

  

编辑/etc/init.d/mysql 配置文件并保存:

启动mysql 服务

 /etc/init.d/mysql start

出现一下提示,表明启动成功

登录mysql

mysql -h localhost -u root -p

设置允许远程登录密码:

usr mysql;

update user set authentication_string=password(‘root123′) where user=’root’;

flush privileges;

查看centos 防火墙状态:

systemctl status firewalld

查看防火墙是否允许访问3306端口:

firewall-cmd –zone=public –query-port=3306/tcp

如果返回胡的是:no ,则需要调为允许访问3306端口,才能远程访问mysql。

开启防火墙允许访问服务器3306端口:

firewall-cmd –zone=public –add-port=3306/tcp –permanent

重新加载防火墙配置,才即可生效:

firewall-cmd  –reload

 

基本上mysql的配置基本已经完成,可以使用mysql 管理工具连接数据库。

创建一个数据库,然后试试远程连接。

 

(在稍微强化一下配置信息)

mysql 的bin目录加入到环境变量中,并重载环境变量文件。

vi /etc/profile

重载环境变量文件:

source /etc/profile

mysql 加入服务列表,并限制执行等级。

chkconfig –add mysql

(注:这里的mysql不是安装路径bin目录下的mysql可执行文件,而且/etc/init.d/mysql ,如果在/etc/init.d/mysqld的话,就是设置为:chkconfig -add mysqld 了)

chkconfig –level 345 mysql on

现在可以使用service 命令操作mysql服务了。

如:查看mysql服务状态

service mysql status

以下是在配置mysql时遇到的问题及解决方法:

启动mysql服务报:[ERROR] SSL error: Unable to get private key from ‘server-key.pem’

解决方法:在mysql的数据库目录中/usr/local/mysql/dataserver-key.pem文件没有读取权限,需要分配-r 权限  

cd /usr/local/mysql/data

chmod -r server-key.pem

启动mysql服务报:ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can’t connect to local MySQL server through socket ‘/tmp/mysql.sock’ (2)

解决方法:在/etc/my.cnf配置文件中,[mysqld]后面配置socket = /tmp/mysql.sock

登录mysql 数据库时报:ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: YES)

解决方法:在/etc/my.cnf配置文件中,[mysqld]后面任意一行添加“skip-grant-tables”用来跳过密码验证的过程。

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