• 周五. 12月 9th, 2022

5G编程聚合网

5G时代下一个聚合的编程学习网

热门标签

DAY18-Django之分页和中间件

admin

11月 28, 2021

分页

Django的分页器(paginator)

view

from django.shortcuts import render,HttpResponse

# Create your views here.
from app01.models import *
from django.core.paginator import Paginator, EmptyPage, PageNotAnInteger

def index(request):

    '''
    批量导入数据:

    Booklist=[]
    for i in range(100):
        Booklist.append(Book(title="book"+str(i),price=30+i*i))
    Book.objects.bulk_create(Booklist)
    '''

    '''
分页器的使用:

    book_list=Book.objects.all()

    paginator = Paginator(book_list, 10)    #把所有数据按10条一页分

    print("count:",paginator.count)           #数据总数
    print("num_pages",paginator.num_pages)    #总页数
    print("page_range",paginator.page_range)  #页码的列表range(1,8)



    page1=paginator.page(1) #第1页的page对象
    for i in page1:         #遍历第1页的所有数据对象
        print(i)

    print(page1.object_list) #第1页的所有数据


    page2=paginator.page(2)

    print(page2.has_next())            #是否有下一页
    print(page2.next_page_number())    #下一页的页码
    print(page2.has_previous())        #是否有上一页
    print(page2.previous_page_number()) #上一页的页码



    # 抛错
    #page=paginator.page(12)   # error:EmptyPage

    #page=paginator.page("z")   # error:PageNotAnInteger

    '''


    book_list=Book.objects.all()

    paginator = Paginator(book_list, 10)
    page = request.GET.get('page',1)     #如果get请求的page为空,则使用默认值1
    currentPage=int(page)


    try:
        print(page)
        book_list = paginator.page(page)
    except PageNotAnInteger:
        book_list = paginator.page(1)
    except EmptyPage:
        book_list = paginator.page(paginator.num_pages)


    return render(request,"index.html",{"book_list":book_list,"paginator":paginator,"currentPage":currentPage})

index.html:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdn.bootcss.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css" 
    integrity="sha384-BVYiiSIFeK1dGmJRAkycuHAHRg32OmUcww7on3RYdg4Va+PmSTsz/K68vbdEjh4u" crossorigin="anonymous">
</head>
<body>

<div class="container">

    <h4>分页器</h4>
    <ul>

        {% for book in book_list %}
             <li>{{ book.title }} -----{{ book.price }}</li>
        {% endfor %}

     </ul>


    <ul class="pagination" id="pager">

                 {% if book_list.has_previous %}
                    <li class="previous"><a href="/index/?page={{ book_list.previous_page_number }}">上一页</a></li>
                 {% else %}
                    <li class="previous disabled"><a href="#">上一页</a></li>
                 {% endif %}


                 {% for num in paginator.page_range %}

                     {% if num == currentPage %}
                       <li class="item active"><a href="/index/?page={{ num }}">{{ num }}</a></li>
                     {% else %}
                       <li class="item"><a href="/index/?page={{ num }}">{{ num }}</a></li>

                     {% endif %}
                 {% endfor %}



                 {% if book_list.has_next %}
                    <li class="next"><a href="/index/?page={{ book_list.next_page_number }}">下一页</a></li>
                 {% else %}
                    <li class="next disabled"><a href="#">下一页</a></li>
                 {% endif %}

            </ul>
</div>



</body>
</html>

扩展

def index(request):


    book_list=Book.objects.all()

    paginator = Paginator(book_list, 15)
    page = request.GET.get('page',1)
    currentPage=int(page)

    #  如果页数十分多时,换另外一种显示方式
    if paginator.num_pages>30:

        if currentPage-5<1:
            pageRange=range(1,11)
        elif currentPage+5>paginator.num_pages:
            pageRange=range(currentPage-5,paginator.num_pages+1)

        else:
            pageRange=range(currentPage-5,currentPage+5)

    else:
        pageRange=paginator.page_range


    try:
        print(page)
        book_list = paginator.page(page)
    except PageNotAnInteger:
        book_list = paginator.page(1)
    except EmptyPage:
        book_list = paginator.page(paginator.num_pages)


    return render(request,"index.html",locals())

 自己写的low版:

from django.shortcuts import render,HttpResponse,redirect
from app01.models import Book
from django.core.paginator import Paginator, EmptyPage, PageNotAnInteger
# Create your views here.

def index(request):
    #插入数据
    # obj_list=[]
    # for i in range(1,101):
    #     obj=Book(title='book%s'%i,price=i*i)
    #     obj_list.append(obj)
    # Book.objects.bulk_create(obj_list)
    # return HttpResponse("ok")

    book_list=Book.objects.all()
    paginator=Paginator(book_list,5)

    currentPage=request.GET.get("page",1)
    if not currentPage.isdigit() or currentPage=="0":
        currentPage=1
    currentPage=int(currentPage)
    if currentPage > paginator.num_pages:
        currentPage=paginator.num_pages

    book_list=paginator.page(currentPage)

    start=currentPage-3
    if start<2:
        start=2
    end=start+7
    if end>paginator.num_pages:
        end=paginator.num_pages
    if end-7>2:
        start=end-7
    page_range=range(start,end)

    return render(request,"index.html",locals())

views.py

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="zh-CN">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
    <!-- 最新版本的 Bootstrap 核心 CSS 文件 -->
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdn.bootcss.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css"
          integrity="sha384-BVYiiSIFeK1dGmJRAkycuHAHRg32OmUcww7on3RYdg4Va+PmSTsz/K68vbdEjh4u" crossorigin="anonymous">
</head>
<body>
<div>
    {% for book in book_list %}
        <div>{{ book.title }}----->{{ book.price }}</div>
    {% endfor %}


    <nav aria-label="Page navigation">
        <ul class="pagination">
            {% if currentPage == 1 %}
                <li class="disabled">
                    {% else %}
                <li>
            {% endif %}

            <a href="?page={{ currentPage|add:-1 }}" aria-label="Previous">
                <span aria-hidden="true">&laquo;</span>
            </a>
            </li>
            {% if currentPage == 1 %}
                <li class="active">
                    {% else %}
                <li>
            {% endif %}

            <a href="?page=1">1</a></li>
            {% if start == 2 %}
                <li><span class="hidden">...</span></li>
            {% else %}
                <li><span>...</span></li>
            {% endif %}

            {% for num in page_range %}
                {% if num == currentPage %}
                    <li class="active">
                        {% else %}
                    <li>
                {% endif %}
            <a href="?page={{ num }}">{{ num }}</a></li>
            {% endfor %}
            {% if end == paginator.num_pages %}
                <li><span class="hidden">...</span></li>
            {% else %}
                <li><span>...</span></li>
            {% endif %}
            {% if currentPage == paginator.num_pages %}
                <li class="active">
                    {% else %}
                <li>
            {% endif %}

            <a href="?page={{ paginator.num_pages }}">{{ paginator.num_pages }}</a></li>
            {% if currentPage == paginator.num_pages %}
                <li class="disabled">
                    {% else %}
                <li>
            {% endif %}
            <a href="?page={{ currentPage|add:1 }}" aria-label="Next">
                <span aria-hidden="true">&raquo;</span>
            </a>
            </li>
        </ul>
    </nav>

</div>
</body>
</html>

index.html

自定义分页器

"""
分页组件使用示例:

    obj = Pagination(request.GET.get('page',1),len(USER_LIST),request.path_info)
    page_user_list = USER_LIST[obj.start:obj.end]
    page_html = obj.page_html()

    return render(request,'index.html',{'users':page_user_list,'page_html':page_html})


"""


class Pagination(object):

    def __init__(self,current_page,all_count,base_url,per_page_num=2,pager_count=11):
        """
        封装分页相关数据
        :param current_page: 当前页
        :param all_count:    数据库中的数据总条数
        :param per_page_num: 每页显示的数据条数
        :param base_url: 分页中显示的URL前缀
        :param pager_count:  最多显示的页码个数
        """

        try:
            current_page = int(current_page)
        except Exception as e:
            current_page = 1

        if current_page <1:
            current_page = 1

        self.current_page = current_page

        self.all_count = all_count
        self.per_page_num = per_page_num

        self.base_url = base_url

        # 总页码
        all_pager, tmp = divmod(all_count, per_page_num)
        if tmp:
            all_pager += 1
        self.all_pager = all_pager


        self.pager_count = pager_count
        self.pager_count_half = int((pager_count - 1) / 2)

    @property
    def start(self):
        return (self.current_page - 1) * self.per_page_num

    @property
    def end(self):
        return self.current_page * self.per_page_num

    def page_html(self):
        # 如果总页码 < 11个:
        if self.all_pager <= self.pager_count:
            pager_start = 1
            pager_end = self.all_pager + 1
        # 总页码  > 11
        else:
            # 当前页如果<=页面上最多显示11/2个页码
            if self.current_page <= self.pager_count_half:
                pager_start = 1
                pager_end = self.pager_count + 1

            # 当前页大于5
            else:
                # 页码翻到最后
                if (self.current_page + self.pager_count_half) > self.all_pager:
                    pager_end = self.all_pager + 1
                    pager_start = self.all_pager - self.pager_count + 1
                else:
                    pager_start = self.current_page - self.pager_count_half
                    pager_end = self.current_page + self.pager_count_half + 1

        page_html_list = []

        first_page = '<li><a href="%s?page=%s">首页</a></li>' % (self.base_url,1,)
        page_html_list.append(first_page)

        if self.current_page <= 1:
            prev_page = '<li class="disabled"><a href="#">上一页</a></li>'
        else:
            prev_page = '<li><a href="%s?page=%s">上一页</a></li>' % (self.base_url,self.current_page - 1,)

        page_html_list.append(prev_page)

        for i in range(pager_start, pager_end):
            if i == self.current_page:
                temp = '<li class="active"><a href="%s?page=%s">%s</a></li>' % (self.base_url,i, i,)
            else:
                temp = '<li><a href="%s?page=%s">%s</a></li>' % (self.base_url,i, i,)
            page_html_list.append(temp)

        if self.current_page >= self.all_pager:
            next_page = '<li class="disabled"><a href="#">下一页</a></li>'
        else:
            next_page = '<li><a href="%s?page=%s">下一页</a></li>' % (self.base_url,self.current_page + 1,)
        page_html_list.append(next_page)

        last_page = '<li><a href="%s?page=%s">尾页</a></li>' % (self.base_url,self.all_pager,)
        page_html_list.append(last_page)

        return ''.join(page_html_list)

自定义分页(葫芦版)

data = []

for i in range(1, 302):
    tmp = {"id": i, "name": "alex-{}".format(i)}
    data.append(tmp)

print(data)


def user_list(request):

    # user_list = data[0:10]
    # user_list = data[10:20]
    try:
        current_page = int(request.GET.get("page"))
    except Exception as e:
        current_page = 1

    per_page = 10

    # 数据总条数
    total_count = len(data)
    # 总页码
    total_page, more = divmod(total_count, per_page)
    if more:
        total_page += 1

    # 页面最多显示多少个页码
    max_show = 11
    half_show = int((max_show-1)/2)

    if current_page <= half_show:
        show_start = 1
        show_end = max_show
    else:
        if current_page + half_show >= total_page:
            show_start = total_page - max_show
            show_end = total_page
        else:
            show_start = current_page - half_show
            show_end = current_page + half_show

    # 数据库中获取数据
    data_start = (current_page - 1) * per_page
    data_end = current_page * per_page

    user_list = data[data_start:data_end]

    # 生成页面上显示的页码
    page_html_list = []
    # 加首页
    first_li = '<li><a href="/user_list/?page=1">首页</a></li>'
    page_html_list.append(first_li)
    # 加上一页
    if current_page == 1:
        prev_li = '<li><a href="#">上一页</a></li>'
    else:
        prev_li = '<li><a href="/user_list/?page={}">上一页</a></li>'.format(current_page - 1)
    page_html_list.append(prev_li)
    for i in range(show_start, show_end+1):
        if i == current_page:
            li_tag = '<li class="active"><a href="/user_list/?page={0}">{0}</a></li>'.format(i)
        else:
            li_tag = '<li><a href="/user_list/?page={0}">{0}</a></li>'.format(i)
        page_html_list.append(li_tag)

    # 加下一页
    if current_page == total_page:
        next_li = '<li><a href="#">下一页</a></li>'
    else:
        next_li = '<li><a href="/user_list/?page={}">下一页</a></li>'.format(current_page+1)
    page_html_list.append(next_li)

    # 加尾页
    page_end_li = '<li><a href="/user_list/?page={}">尾页</a></li>'.format(total_page)
    page_html_list.append(page_end_li)

    page_html = "".join(page_html_list)

    return render(request, "user_list.html", {"user_list": user_list, "page_html": page_html})

稳扎稳打版

class Pagination(object):
    def __init__(self, current_page, total_count, base_url, per_page=10, max_show=11):
        """
        :param current_page: 当前页
        :param total_count: 数据库中数据总数
        :param per_page: 每页显示多少条数据
        :param max_show: 最多显示多少页
        """
        try:
            current_page = int(current_page)
        except Exception as e:
            current_page = 1

        self.current_page = current_page
        self.total_count = total_count
        self.base_url = base_url
        self.per_page = per_page
        self.max_show = max_show

        # 总页码
        total_page, more = divmod(total_count, per_page)
        if more:
            total_page += 1
        
        half_show = int((max_show - 1) / 2)
        self.half_show = half_show
        self.total_page = total_page

    @property
    def start(self):
        return (self.current_page - 1) * self.per_page

    @property
    def end(self):
        return self.current_page * self.per_page

    def page_html(self):

        if self.current_page <= self.half_show:
            show_start = 1
            show_end = self.max_show
        else:
            if self.current_page + self.half_show >= self.total_page:
                show_start = self.total_page - self.max_show
                show_end = self.total_page
            else:
                show_start = self.current_page - self.half_show
                show_end = self.current_page + self.half_show

                # 生成页面上显示的页码
        page_html_list = []
        # 加首页
        first_li = '<li><a href="{}?page=1">首页</a></li>'.format(self.base_url)
        page_html_list.append(first_li)
        # 加上一页
        if self.current_page == 1:
            prev_li = '<li><a href="#">上一页</a></li>'
        else:
            prev_li = '<li><a href="{0}?page={1}">上一页</a></li>'.format(self.base_url, self.current_page - 1)
        page_html_list.append(prev_li)
        for i in range(show_start, show_end + 1):
            if i == self.current_page:
                li_tag = '<li class="active"><a href="{0}?page={1}">{1}</a></li>'.format(self.base_url, i)
            else:
                li_tag = '<li><a href="{0}?page={1}">{1}</a></li>'.format(self.base_url, i)
            page_html_list.append(li_tag)

        # 加下一页
        if self.current_page == self.total_page:
            next_li = '<li><a href="#">下一页</a></li>'
        else:
            next_li = '<li><a href="{0}?page={1}">下一页</a></li>'.format(self.base_url, self.current_page + 1)
        page_html_list.append(next_li)

        # 加尾页
        page_end_li = '<li><a href="{0}?page={1}">尾页</a></li>'.format(self.base_url, self.total_page)
        page_html_list.append(page_end_li)

        return "".join(page_html_list)

封装保存版

def user_list(request):
    pager = Pagination(request.GET.get("page"), len(data), request.path_info)
    user_list = data[pager.start:pager.end]
    page_html = pager.page_html()
    return render(request, "user_list.html", {"user_list": user_list, "page_html": page_html})

Django内置分页

from django.shortcuts import render
from django.core.paginator import Paginator, EmptyPage, PageNotAnInteger

L = []
for i in range(999):
    L.append(i)

def index(request):
    current_page = request.GET.get('p')

    paginator = Paginator(L, 10)
    # per_page: 每页显示条目数量
    # count:    数据总个数
    # num_pages:总页数
    # page_range:总页数的索引范围,如: (1,10),(1,200)
    # page:     page对象
    try:
        posts = paginator.page(current_page)
        # has_next              是否有下一页
        # next_page_number      下一页页码
        # has_previous          是否有上一页
        # previous_page_number  上一页页码
        # object_list           分页之后的数据列表
        # number                当前页
        # paginator             paginator对象
    except PageNotAnInteger:
        posts = paginator.page(1)
    except EmptyPage:
        posts = paginator.page(paginator.num_pages)
    return render(request, 'index.html', {'posts': posts})

内置分页view部分

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title></title>
</head>
<body>
<ul>
    {% for item in posts %}
        <li>{{ item }}</li>
    {% endfor %}
</ul>

<div class="pagination">
      <span class="step-links">
        {% if posts.has_previous %}
            <a href="?p={{ posts.previous_page_number }}">Previous</a>
        {% endif %}
          <span class="current">
            Page {{ posts.number }} of {{ posts.paginator.num_pages }}.
          </span>
          {% if posts.has_next %}
              <a href="?p={{ posts.next_page_number }}">Next</a>
          {% endif %}
      </span>

</div>
</body>
</html>

内置分页HTML部分

中间件

中间件的概念

中间件顾名思义,是介于request与response处理之间的一道处理过程,相对比较轻量级,并且在全局上改变django的输入与输出。因为改变的是全局,所以需要谨慎实用,用不好会影响到性能。

Django的中间件的定义:

#Middleware is a framework of hooks into Django’s request/response processing. <br>It’s a light, low-level “plugin” system for globally altering Django’s input or output.

如果你想修改请求,例如被传送到view中的HttpRequest对象。 或者你想修改view返回的HttpResponse对象,这些都可以通过中间件来实现。

可能你还想在view执行之前做一些操作,这种情况就可以用 middleware来实现。

大家可能频繁在view使用request.user吧。 Django想在每个view执行之前把user设置为request的属性,于是就用了一个中间件来实现这个目标。所以Django提供了可以修改request 对象的中间件 AuthenticationMiddleware

Django默认的Middleware

MIDDLEWARE = [
    'django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.clickjacking.XFrameOptionsMiddleware',
]

每一个中间件都有具体的功能。

自定义中间件

中间件中一共有四个方法:

process_request

process_view

process_exception

process_response

process_request,process_response

当用户发起请求的时候会依次经过所有的的中间件,这个时候的请求时process_request,最后到达views的函数中,views函数处理后,在依次穿过中间件,这个时候是process_response,最后返回给请求者。

上述截图中的中间件都是django中的,我们也可以自己定义一个中间件,我们可以自己写一个类,但是必须继承MiddlewareMixin

需要导入

from django.utils.deprecation import MiddlewareMixin

注意,自定义的中间件模块名称和存放位置也不用固定,也可以放到具体应用文件夹中.

in views:

def index(request):

    print("view函数...")
    return HttpResponse("OK")

in Mymiddlewares.py:

from django.utils.deprecation import MiddlewareMixin
from django.shortcuts import HttpResponse

class Md1(MiddlewareMixin):

    def process_request(self,request):
        print("Md1请求")
 
    def process_response(self,request,response):
        print("Md1返回")
        return response

class Md2(MiddlewareMixin):

    def process_request(self,request):
        print("Md2请求")
        #return HttpResponse("Md2中断")
    def process_response(self,request,response):
        print("Md2返回")
        return response

结果:

Md1请求
Md2请求
view函数...
Md2返回
Md1返回

注意:如果当请求到达请求2的时候直接不符合条件返回,即return HttpResponse(“Md2中断”),程序将把请求直接发给中间件2返回,然后依次返回到请求者,结果如下:

返回Md2中断的页面,后台打印如下:

Md1请求
Md2请求
Md2返回
Md1返回

流程图如下:

process_view

process_view(self, request, callback, callback_args, callback_kwargs)

 Mymiddlewares.py修改如下

from django.utils.deprecation import MiddlewareMixin
from django.shortcuts import HttpResponse

class Md1(MiddlewareMixin):

    def process_request(self,request):
        print("Md1请求")
        #return HttpResponse("Md1中断")
    def process_response(self,request,response):
        print("Md1返回")
        return response

    def process_view(self, request, callback, callback_args, callback_kwargs):
        print("Md1view")

class Md2(MiddlewareMixin):

    def process_request(self,request):
        print("Md2请求")
        return HttpResponse("Md2中断")
    def process_response(self,request,response):
        print("Md2返回")
        return response

    def process_view(self, request, callback, callback_args, callback_kwargs):
        print("Md2view")

结果如下:

Md1请求
Md2请求
Md1view
Md2view
view函数...
Md2返回
Md1返回

下图进行分析上面的过程:

 

当最后一个中间的process_request到达路由关系映射之后,返回到中间件1的process_view,然后依次往下,到达views函数,最后通过process_response依次返回到达用户。

process_view可以用来调用视图函数:

class Md1(MiddlewareMixin):

    def process_request(self,request):
        print("Md1请求")
        #return HttpResponse("Md1中断")
    def process_response(self,request,response):
        print("Md1返回")
        return response

    def process_view(self, request, callback, callback_args, callback_kwargs):

        # return HttpResponse("hello")

        response=callback(request,*callback_args,**callback_kwargs)
        return response

结果如下:

Md1请求
Md2请求
view函数...
Md2返回
Md1返回

注意:process_view如果有返回值,会越过其他的process_view以及视图函数,但是所有的process_response都还会执行。

process_exception

process_exception(self, request, exception)

示例修改如下:

class Md1(MiddlewareMixin):

    def process_request(self,request):
        print("Md1请求")
        #return HttpResponse("Md1中断")
    def process_response(self,request,response):
        print("Md1返回")
        return response

    def process_view(self, request, callback, callback_args, callback_kwargs):

        # return HttpResponse("hello")

        # response=callback(request,*callback_args,**callback_kwargs)
        # return response
        print("md1 process_view...")

    def process_exception(self):
        print("md1 process_exception...")



class Md2(MiddlewareMixin):

    def process_request(self,request):
        print("Md2请求")
        # return HttpResponse("Md2中断")
    def process_response(self,request,response):
        print("Md2返回")
        return response
    def process_view(self, request, callback, callback_args, callback_kwargs):
        print("md2 process_view...")

    def process_exception(self):
        print("md1 process_exception...")

结果如下:

Md1请求
Md2请求
md1 process_view...
md2 process_view...
view函数...

Md2返回
Md1返回

流程图如下:

当views出现错误时:

  将md2的process_exception修改如下:

def process_exception(self,request,exception):

        print("md2 process_exception...")
        return HttpResponse("error")

结果如下:

Md1请求
Md2请求
md1 process_view...
md2 process_view...
view函数...
md2 process_exception...
Md2返回
Md1返回

发表回复

您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注