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Nginx1.1.4+ 对后端机器的长连接特性

admin

11月 28, 2021

转自:http://zhangxugg-163-com.iteye.com/blog/1551269

nginx upstream keepalive connections

 

Nginx从 1.1.4 开始,实现了对后端机器的长连接支持,这是一个激动人心的改进,这意味着 Nginx 与后端机器的通信效率更高,后端机器的负担更低。

 

例如,对一个没有长连接支持的后端机器,会出现大量TIME_WAIT 状态的连接,使用以下命令验证之:

netstat -n | grep TIME_WAIT

 

经过查阅官方文档,其目前已经实现了http, fastcgi, memcache 协议的长连接支持。而之前的版本中仅支持 memcache 协议。

 

1. 启用到 memcache 服务器的长连接
在upstream
配置段中增加
keepalive N
指令即可:

upstream memcached_backend {

    server 127.0.0.1:11211;

    server 10.0.0.2:11211;

   
 keepalive 32;

}

 

server {

    …

    location /memcached/ {

        set $memcached_key $uri;

        memcached_pass memcached_backend;

    }

}

 

 

2. 
启用fastcgi
长连接支持

除了需要在upstream
中配置
keepalive N
外,还需要在
location
中增加
fastcgi_keep_conn on;

upstream fastcgi_backend {

    server 127.0.0.1:9000;

    
keepalive 8;

}

 

server {

    …

    location /fastcgi/ {

        fastcgi_pass fastcgi_backend;

        
fastcgi_keep_conn on;

        …

    }

}

 

3. 
启用对后端机器HTTP
长连接支持

upstream http_backend {

    server 127.0.0.1:8080;

    keepalive 16;

}

 

server {

    …

    location /http/ {

        proxy_pass http://http_backend;

        proxy_http_version 1.1;

        proxy_set_header Connection “”;

        …

    }

}

 

注意:需要设置nginx
代理请求的
http
协议版本号为
1.1, 
以及清除掉
Connection
请求
header, 
官方文档描述:

For HTTP, the proxy_http_version directive should be set to “
1.1
” 
and the 

Connection
” 
header field should be cleared

.

 

The connections parameter should be set low enough to allow upstream servers to process additional new incoming connections as well. 

 

即是说:keepalive N
指令中
, N
的值应该尽可能设置小一些,以便后端机器可以同时接受新的连接。

 

在我负责的生产环境中,前端是nginx, 
静态文件缓存使用
varnish, 
使用长连接之后,
varnish
机器的连接数从
8000
多下降至
200
多,负载值也有明显降低。

 

但是针对fastcgi, 
即后端机器是
php-fpm
服务时,在
nginx
日志中出现以下错误:

 upstream sent unsupported FastCGI protocol version: 0 while reading upstream

 

广泛搜集,目前还未解决之。如果您遇到同样的问题并解决之,请一定联系笔者信箱[email protected],

 甚是感谢。

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